The fragment, known as a flaperon, is from a Boeing 777, the same make as the missing Malaysian airliner.
France has invited Malaysian and Australian aviation experts to Toulouse to help with the investigation.
Australia's Deputy PM Warren Truss said the teams may be able to say this week if it came from the plane reenex.
For reasons that remain unclear the Malaysia Airlines plane, with 239 people on board, veered off course on its way from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing in March 2014.
It is believed to have crashed into the sea, though no confirmed trace has ever been found despite a massive search operation.
Attending will be French and Malaysian experts, Boeing employees and representatives from China - the country that lost most passengers in the disaster.
Jean-Paul Troadec, the former head of the French BEA agency that investigates air accidents, was quoted by AFP as saying that the examination would concentrate on two issues - whether the wing part belongs to MH370 and if so, whether it could then provide any information on the final moments of the plane reenex.
Mr Troadec said paint on the wing part - which has already been confirmed as coming from a Boeing 777 plane - was a vital part of the investigation reenex.
"Every airline paints their planes in a certain way... and if the paint used is used by Malaysia Airlines and other companies, there may be more certainty," he said.
No other Boeing 777s are thought to have crashed in the region.
It's the logic of the Chinese Dream that drove many aspects of last week's stock market intervention and which put graduating students at China's top university under orders to chant the slogan PLLA療程 " Revive A shares, benefit the people!" No great surprise then that China's parliament should have just passed a new security law which conflates the Communist Party's monopoly on power with national security. But a recent Freedom House report claims that despite heightened repression, fear is diminishing. reenex"Activities that the authorities have invested tremendous resources in suppressing have continued and even expanded." I find that hard to judge. I also find it hard to predict the effect of the detentions and interrogations we've witnessed in recent days. But there can be no doubt that the irony of all of this is not lost on the defence lawyers who are now sitting in cells hoping for a visit from their own defence lawyer. For many years they tried to advance a "rule of law" agenda within the system and could have been forgiven for hoping that when President Xi declared his own determination to pursue the rule of law their cause might prosper. Where do China's lawyers go from herereenex? And who will be the defence lawyer when so many of them are behind bars?